Care Models: California and Ontario · California At-Home Care Model · Ontario Direct Funding Model · Ontario Publicly-Funded Medical Model · Ontario Attendant Services Model · California Publicly-Funded Model · Long-term Care Costs · Demographic Trends · Labour Standards in Caregiving · Live-in Caregiver Program

Care Models: California and Ontario

  • Introduces models of home care arrangement, and key actors involved in Ontario and California
  • Describes the Importance of client flexibility and worker security in assessing service outcomes

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California At-Home Care Model

  • Market-based model of home care arrangement
  • High flexibility for clients met with low employment security for workers

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Ontario Direct Funding Model

  • Emphasis on self-management for clients, with some government involvement
  • High flexibility for clients, but low employment security for workers

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Ontario Publicly-Funded Medical Model

  • Government-funded and directed model, with for and non-profit agency involvement
  • Low flexibility for clients, medium employment security for workers

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Ontario Attendant Services Model

  • Government regulation coupled with high union regulation
  • Medium flexibility for clients, high employment security for workers

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California Publicly-Funded Model

  • Provides registry for clients and workers, and offers extensive union coverage
  • High flexibility for clients, while maintaining medium security levels for workers

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Long-term Care Costs

  • Canada’s projected cost of long-term care
  • Cost difference of care arrangements in Ontario

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Demographic Trends

  • Comparing Canada’s average life expectancy and total fertility rate
  • Canada’s growing dependent population

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Labour Standards in Caregiving

  • Comparison of ‘high-skilled’ and ‘low-skilled’ care work in Canada
  • Comparison of levels of temporary employment protection in OECD countries

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Live-in Caregiver Program

  • Pay disparity between live-in caregivers and skilled foreign workers in Canada
  • Changing education status of live-in caregivers

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